Condenser lens design book pdf

Condenser lenses are molded lenses designed for illumination applications. Implicitly, the projection lens solution defines part of the condenser lens system, which is why designing the projection lens system first is crucial. Ideally, the source used should be an extended one so that the lightfield at the slide is one of high optical grasp, so that the field at the object plane slide is like a whole bunch of broad apex angle high numerical aperture conical bundles of rays diverging. Role of the condenser lens if the lens action of the condenser lens is strengthened, the electron probe becomes narrower with a smaller ratio of ba, whereas if weakened, the electron probe becomes broader. A condenser is an optical lens which renders a divergent beam from a point source into a parallel or converging beam to illuminate an object condensers are an essential part of any imaging device, such as microscopes, enlargers, slide projectors, and telescopes. Pdf design software of the double condenser magnetic lens. Heat transfer in refrigerator condensers and evaporators d. The concept is applicable to all kinds of radiation undergoing optical transformation, such as electrons in electron microscopy.

The optical principles and basic lens design needed to generate a diffraction limited. Therefore, these lenses are ideal for highefficiency illumination applications or collimating light from a lamp, led, or similar light source. Design software of the double condenser magnetic lens system in a scanning electron microscope article pdf available in iraqi journal of science 55a4. This condenser design is useful for both routine and critical laboratory analysis with dry or oil immersion objectives and also for black and white or color photomicrography and digital imaging. Magnetic lens design for electron microscopy depends on the operating mode of the lens. Planoconvex condenser lenses high power illumination uv. This condenser design is useful for both routine and critical laboratory analysis with dry or oil immersion objectives and also for black and white or. Abbe condenser design two featuring an angled mirror and collector lens in the lamphouse, this design should produce adequate illumination for most. Abbe condenser design one incorporating a twolens abbe condenser and a tungsten lamphouse, this condenser is designed to replace the existing mixing chamber on the stock qx3 microscope. The na of a condenser should be equal to or greater than that of the objective with maximum na. In the stem mode, both condenser and objective minilenses are tuned off. Heat transfer in refrigerator condensers and evaporators. Every step from setup specifications to finalizing the design for production is discussed in a straight forward, tangible way. A condenser is an optical lens which renders a divergent beam from a point source into a.

A tutorial for designing fundamental imaging systems koichi taniguchi opti 521 distance learning college of optical science university of arizona november 2009,, abstract this tutorial shows what to do when we design optomechanical system for imaging system. Objective lens first condenser lens condenser aperture second condenser lens objective aperture scan coils sample 1 the virtual source at the top represents the electron gun, producing a stream of monochromatic electrons. The absence of such a volume, bringing together in formation about the theory and practical design of these. In this chapter we examine the optical design of the light microscope and. In this section of mechanical books you will find compressor handbook pdf for direct downlod. Effective steam condenser design, of necessity, must take many performance variables into consideration. The c2 lens and the gun lens are used to tune the probe coherence further by setting the probe size. Planoconvex condenser lenses high power illumination. Ernst abbe invented the concept of numerical aperture in 1873. A tutorial for designing fundamental imaging systems. The condenser cooling water system, generally known in the industry as a circulating water cw system, provides a continuous supply of cooling water to the main condenser during plant operation in order to remove the heat rejected by the exhaust steam from the lp steam turbine at the condenser.

Condenses light rays from sub stage illumination and fills the back element of objective lens to improve image resolution. Figure 30 a shows the schematic of a symmetrical objective lens of an electron microscope. Secondary and backscattered electrons are constantly being produced from the surface of the specimen while under the electron beam however they are a result of two separate types of interaction. Chapter 17 handbook of optics photonics research group. Introduction to lens design with practical zemax examples pdf. The fundamental operating modes in electron microscopy require objective lens, projector lens and condenser lens. In lens design with large computers, proceedings of the conference, institute of optics, government superintendent, rochester, new york. The sharper the focus, the less of the beam intercepted by an aperture small hole located below the lenses and. Figure 30 a shows the schematic of a symmetrical objective lens of. Field guide to lens design 2012 bentley publications. Report broken links to contact us compressors introduction download a practical guide to compressor technology second edition download atlas copco compressed air manual 8th.

The book presented here has the title a course in lens design. Early microscopists were hampered by optical aberration, blurred images, and poor lens design, which. The titan microscope has six lenses in the illuminating system, namely the gun lens, the first condenser lens c1, the second condenser lens c2, the third condenser lens c3, the minicondenser lens mc and objective lens obj. At this position, the lens form a virtual, erect and enlarged image see fig.

A symmetrical representation of the geometrical optics of the light. The simplest camera has a lens, shutter, an iris diaphragm and a box in which the. Condenser design and capacity info 4 quick find list sorted by capacity 5 1 kw to 17. The main function of these lenses is summarized in the following table. Magnifying lens is the angle subtended by the object, oo, with a hight h when viewed from 25 cm by unaided eye. A crossover is formed between the two condenser lenses c1 and c2 by employing nearmaximum excitation in the c1 lens, resulting in a large source demagnification. The most common of these are to free up disk space or make pdf files easier to upload and download, especially because uncompressed pdf files are often very large. The configuration of the exhaust flow pattern entering the condenser the moisture content of the incoming steam the design of the transition piece to achieve the most uniform. The process of designing lenses is both an art and a science. In that time, many people have had questions about lens design. The uv lenses that form the condenser are made from, for example, fused silica, quartz or calcium fluoride. The condenser lens system in a modern tem permits great versatility in how the.

A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. This is done by passing the wet steam around thousands of small cold water tubes. The achromatic condenser usually contains four lens elements and has a numerical aperture ranging from 0. Optical microscopy davidson and abramowitz optical. No single volume has been entirely devoted to the properties of magnetic lenses, so far as i am aware, although of course all the numerous textbooks on electron optics devote space to them. Warren smith did the industry a tremendous favor by writing this book and updating it every so often.

If i was unable to answer the question in an hour or less, i would hand them a copy of modern optical engineering. Design examples of several widely used modern lenses are provided. Mirror versions of condenser lens assemblies are also available. A pdf condenser can be desirable for several reasons. Condensers are used in a variety of operations in chemical and petroleum processing, including distillation, refrigeration, and power generation. Brandon cheney ants leg integrated circuit nanocomposite this document was created as part of a senior project in the materials engineering department at san jose state university. Advanced condenser systems florida state university. The aperture, made of a thin metal plate, has a small. Thermodynamic design of condensers and evaporators. The condensed steam is collected at the bottom of the condenser and. The aspheric condenser lens surface is molded, while the plano or spherical surface is ground and polished. The condenser lens controls the amount of current that passes down the rest of the column by focusing the electron beam to variable degrees figure 3.

The procedure is applied to compressor design for pressure ratios of 2, 6. However, by taking advantage of the brdf symmetry prop65. In scanning electron microscopy visual inspection of the surface of a material utilizes signals of two types, secondary and backscattered electrons. The cold water is usually supplied from a nearby sea, lake, river, or from a cooling tower. While advancements in the field over the past two centuries have done much to transform it from the former category to the latter, much of the lens design process remains encapsulated in the experience and knowledge of industry veterans. This book provides a foundation for developing design expertise through education, practice, and exploration. My only slight dissapointment was the relatively few descriptions of typical systems but using the book you could design these from first principles. Pdf design software of the double condenser magnetic. Featuring large apertures and short focal lengths, condenser lenses are commonly used in emitterdetector applications, projection applications, or condensing illumination applications such as koehler illumination. Warren smith did the industry a tremendous favor by writing this book and updating it.

The a frame structured designs are mostly used in the power plants. Now, let us use a lens and place the same object in front of the eye, and inside the focal point of the lens. Virtually, every distillation column employs either a partial or total condenser to liquefy some, or all, of the overhead vapor stream, thereby providing reflux for the column and often. Thorlabs aspheric condenser lenses with diffusers are designed for collimating light from lamps, leds, or similar sources into a highly uniform illumination pattern. Optical microscopy, with help of digital video, can also be used to image very thin optical sections, and confocal optical systems are now in operation at most major research institutions 1012. The first lens collects the divergent light cone from the illuminator object or projector and the second lens outputs the light as a convergent cone image, which will illuminate the reticle. These condenser lenses provide excellent transmission in the visible to nearinfrared regions. The purpose of the condenser is to set up a highly defocussed lightfield through the object plane, i. This is an ultimate guide of lens design forms, the optical systems that are used in our world. A pdf condenser, more commonly known as a pdf compressor, refers to software used to reduce the file size of pdf files.

Click on document introduction to lens design with practical zemax examples pdf. Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging. The book also explains how to use typical optical design software. The aperture is placed between the condenser lens and objective lens. Our uncoated aspheric condenser lenses are fabricated out of schott b 270 ultrawhite or equivalent glass. Principles of stereoscopy in the single objective binocular microscope 567 lens, the back focal plane of the objective lens and the eyepoint or ramsden disc. This compound microscope consisting of an objective lens and an eyepiece together with a means of focusing, a mirror or a source of light and a specimen table for holding and positioning the specimen. Condenser lenses are typically used in enlargers, projectors and illumination lighting systems. The first lens collects the divergent light cone from.

But the not all the lens designs are simple lenses, we will look at newer and important lens design forms as well. Basic principles about designing paraxial systems are introduced. The problem can be solved by the addition of another lens to magnify the image produced by the first lens. Knight optical is able to design and build uv condenser lens assemblies using, for example, fused silica as the refractive elements. The optical principles and basic lens design needed to generate a dif fraction limited.

Also there are sections on mechanical components such as lens mounting etc. A practical guide to lens design focuses on the very detailed practical process of lens design. The nearly all accepted style of air cooled condenser is the modularized a frame structured design, used on industries and power plants of all sizes. Although i have taken a great deal of effort to assure accuracy, the user of any of. Optical microscopy davidson and abramowitz optical microscopy. The condenser lens systems collects light from divergent illumination sources, then redirects and condenses the light to flood the projector lens system. We offer two sizes o25 mm and o50 mm to accommodate varying application needs. Condenser lenses are used for concentrating light into a beam. Otherwise, it is convenient to design separate desuperheater and subcooling exchangers. Optical design of microscopes 2010 seward publications spie. Some condensers have a rackand pinion mechanism for upanddown adjustment. The calculations for detail study can be found out in reference 3 page 283285.

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